Listed here are some of the
more common points of a horse with a small description:
Point of Shoulder - The point of shoulder is a hard, bony prominence surrounded by heavy muscle masses.
Breast - The Breast is a muscle mass between the forelegs, covering the front of the chest.
Chest - An ideal chest is deep and contains the space necessary for vital organs. A narrow chest can lead to interference with the front legs. Chest muscles should be well developed and form an inverted "V". The prominence of chest muscling depends on the breed.
Forearm - The forearm should be well muscled, it extends from the elbow to the knee.
Knee - The knee is the joint between the forearm and the cannon bone.
Coronet - The coronet is the band around the top of the hoof from which the hoof wall grows.
Hoof - The hoof refers to the horny wall and the sole of the foot. The foot includes the horny structure and the pedal bones and navacular bones, as well as other connective tissue.
Pastern - The pastern extends from the fetlock to the top of the hoof.
Fetlock - The fetlock is the joint between the cannon bone and the pastern. The fetlock joint should
be large and clean.
Cannon Bone - The cannon bone lies between the knee and fetlock joint, and is visible from the front of the leg. It should be straight.
Hock - The hock is the joint between the gaskin and the cannon bone, in the rear leg. The bony protuberance at the back of the hock is called the point of hock.
Gaskin or Second
Thighs- The gaskin is the region between the stifle and the hock.
Stifle - The stifle is the joint at the end of the thigh corresponding to the human knee.
Flank - The flank is the area below the loin, between the last rib and the massive muscles of the thigh.
Croup - The croup (rump) lies between the loin and the tail. When one is looking from the side or back, it is the highest point of the hindquarters.
Loin - The loin or coupling is the short area joining the back to the powerful muscular croup ( rump).
Back - The back extends from the base of the withers to where the last rib is attached.
Withers - The withers is the prominent ridge where the neck and the back join. At the withers, powerful muscles of the neck and shoulders attach to the elongated spines of the second to sixth thoracic vertebrae. The height of a
miniature horse is measured vertically from the withers (the last hair of the
mane) to the ground, because the withers is the horse's highest constant point.
Neck - Lightweight horses should have reasonably long necks for good appearance and proper balance. It should blend smoothly into the withers and the shoulders and not appear to emerge between the front legs.
Shoulder - Shoulders should be overlain with lean, flat muscle and blend well into the withers.
Elbow - The elbow is a bony prominence lying against the chest at the beginning of the forearm.
Hindquarters - The hindquarters give power to the
horse and should be well muscled when viewed from the side and rear.
Poll - The poll is the bony prominence lying between the ears. Except for the ears, it is the highest point on the horses body when it is standing with its head up.
Crest - Moderately lean in mares but inclined to be more full in stallions. Curved topline of the neck.
Forehead - The forehead should be broad, full and flat.
Nostrils - The nostrils should be capable of wide dilation to permit the maximum inhalation of air, yet be rather fine.
Muzzle - The head should taper to a small muzzle, the lips should be firm and the lower lip should not have the tendency to sag.
American Miniature Horse Assn.
Standard of Perfection
GENERAL IMPRESSION: A small,
sound, well-balanced horse, possessing the correct conformation characteristics
required of most breeds. Refinement and femininity in the mare. Boldness and
masculinity in the stallion. The general impression should be one of symmetry,
strength, agility and alertness. Since the breed objective is the smallest
possible perfect horse, preference in judging shall be given the smaller horse,
other characteristics being approximately equal.
SIZE: Must measure not more
than 34 inches at the withers, at the last hairs of the mane.
HEAD: In proportion to length
of neck and body. Broad forehead with large prominent eyes, set wide apart.
Comparatively short distance between eyes and muzzle. Profile straight or
slightly concave below the eyes. Large nostrils. Clean, refined muzzle. Even
EARS: Medium in size. Pointed.
Carried alertly, with tips curving slightly inward.
THROAT-LATCH: Clean and well
defined, allowing ample flexion at the poll.
NECK: Flexible, lengthy, in
proportion to body and type and blending smoothly into the withers.
SHOULDER: Long, sloping and
well-angulated, allowing a free-swinging stride and alert head/neck carriage.
Well muscled forearm.
BODY: Well muscled, with ample
bone and substance. Balanced and well proportioned. Short back and loins in
relation to length of underline. smooth and generally level top-line. Deep girth
and flank. Trim barrel.
well-muscled hip, thigh and gaskin. Highest point of croup to be same height as
withers. Tail set neither excessively high or low, but smoothly round off rump.
LEGS: Set straight and
parallel when viewed from front or back. Straight, true and squarely set, when
viewed from the side with hooves pointing directly ahead. Pasterns sloping about
45 degrees and blending smoothly, with no change of angle, from the hooves to
the ground. Hooves to be round and compact, trimmed as short as practicable for
an unshod horse. Smooth, fluid gait in motion.
COLOR: Any color or marking
pattern, and any eye color, is equally acceptable. The hair should be lustrous
SHOW DISQUALIFICATIONS: Height
in excess of 34 inches. Monorchidism in Senior Stallions. Any unsoundness or
inheritable deformity. If in doubt, the show Judge may request the opinion of
the show Veterinarian. Non-disfiguring blemishes not associated with
unsoundness, or injuries which are temporary, should not be penalized unless
they impair the general appearance and/or action of the horse.